reading list under construction---check back here shortly.

Technological Changes

Consequences and Responses from the Legal Profession

  1. Oliver Goodenough, Getting to Computational Jurisprudence 3.0
  2. Frank Pasquale & Glyn Cashwell, Four Futures of Legal Automation (2015)
  3. John McGinnis & Russell Pearce, The Great Disruption: How Machine Intelligence Will Transform the Role of Lawyers in the Delivery of Legal Services
  4. Tanina Rostain, Roger Skalbek & Kevin G. Mulcahy, Thinking Like a Lawyer, Designing Like an Architect: Preparing Students for the 21st Century Practice
  5. Dan Katz, Seven Observations Regarding Innovation and the Legal Industry


  1. Dan Katz, Quantitative Legal Prediction – or – How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Start Preparing for the Data Driven Future of the Legal Services Industry and slides for same
  2. Harry Surden, Machine Learning and Law
  3. Stephen Poor, Fitbits, Data and Lawyers
  4. Willis M. Hampton, Predictive Coding: It's Here to Stay
  5. The Supreme Court Forecasting Project
  6. In particular, social/legal consequences of predictive technologies:
  7. Matt Stroud, The minority report: Chicago's new police computer predicts crimes, but is it racist?
  8. Letter from DOJ to chair of U.S. Sentencing Commission objecting to "evidence-based" (i.e. predictive risk assessment) sentencing and related NYT editorial from Sonja Starr, Related commentary from 538
  9. Frank Pasquale, Digital Star Chamber

Expert Systems, Automation, and Computable Rules/Contracts

  1. David R. Johnson, Serving Justice with Conversational Law (2012)
  2. Mark D. Flood & Oliver Goodenough, Contract as Automaton: The Computational Representation of Financial Agreements
  3. Kenneth A. Grady, With the Internet of Things Comes the Internet of Law
  4. Michael Genesereth, Computational Law: the Cop in the Backseat
  5. SHYSTER, an Australian expert system from the 90's.
  6. Expert Systems in Legal Services (accessible explanation of how they work from Neota Logic)
  7. Burkhard Schafer, ZombAIs: Legal Expert Systems as Representatives “Beyond the Grave”
  8. Philip Leith, The Rise and Fall of the Legal Expert System

Businesses doing Legal Tech (alphabetical order)

(Mostly focused on startups getting a lot of attention/run by people I know, fairly randomly selected, no endorsement implied by inclusion or lack thereof by exclusion)
  1. Allegory
  2. Avvo
  3. Axiom
  4. Brainspace Discovery
  5. Casetext
  6. Cicayda
  7. Clear Access IP
  8. Clio
  9. Disco
  10. Docket Alarm
  11. Ebrevia
  12. ELM Solutions
  13. Fastcase
  14. HotDocs
  15. Judicata
  16. Kira
  17. Jurispect
  18. Juristat
  19. JustiServ
  20. KmStandards
  21. Law Dingo
  22. LawGives
  23. Legal OnRamp
  24. LegalZoom
  25. Lex Machina
  26. Modria
  27. Neota Logic
  28. Palantir, Legal Intelligence Division
  29. Picture it Settled
  30. Priori Legal
  31. Ravellaw
  32. Rocket Lawyer
  33. Ross
  34. Shake
  35. Traklight
  36. UpCounsel
Also see big list at Law Hackers. For more established companies, the Interntional Legal Technology Association is one starting point.

Nonprofits doing Legal Tech

  1. Legal Services Corporation---Technology Initiative Grants
  2. CourtListener
  3. RECAP (open pacer docs)
  4. LawHelp Interactive and other projects by
  5. National Council of La Raza announcement for Immigo 2.0
  6. American Bar Foundation (more of a general resource)
  7. ABA Techshow
  8. (potentially see also this evolving list of tools?)

Legal Tech Research Centers

  1. CodeX (Stanford)
  2. Center for Information Technology Policy (Princeton)
  3. Berkman Center (Harvard)
  4. Vermont Center for Legal Innovation
  5. Chicago-Kent Center for Access to Justice & Technology (See in particular this report on a pro se access to justice design project led by this center)
  6. Florida Coastal Center for Law Practice Technology
  7. International Association for Artificial Intelligence and Law

The Legal Profession: Economics and Policy

Unbundling and Nonlawyer Practice

  1. Deborah L. Rhode, Reforming American Legal Education and Legal Practice: Rethinking Licensing Structures and the Role of Nonlawyers in Delivering and Financing Legal Services (2013).
  2. Tim Hwang, The Laws of Legal Robotics
  3. Stephanie Kimbro, Using Technology to Unbundle in the Legal Services Community

General Economics and more on Effects of Tech Changes

  1. Georgetown Center for the Study of the Legal Profession, 2015 Report on the State of the Legal Market
  2. Bill Henderson -- SSRN papers (many of which are great on economics of law practice). Also involved in Lawyer Metrics and Law Firms Working Group, which have more information.
  3. Panel videos: "Disruptive Innovation in the Market for Legal Services"
  4. Ron Dolin & Thomas Buley, Adaptive Innovation: Innovator's Dilemma in Big Law
  5. Nick Robinson, When Lawyers Don't Get All the Profits: Non-Lawyer Ownership of Legal Services, Access, and Professionalism
  6. ABA, Legal profession statistics, particularly One-pager on lawyer demographics, practice settings, etc.

The Tools and Process of Policy Analysis

Design Thinking/Process

  1. Open Law Lab
  2. Stanford D.School
  3. Needfinding Crib Sheet
  4. Stephen Poor, An Audience of Lawyers (more about gently managing change among lawyers than design)

Data Analysis and Measurement

(TBA, may be in handout form.)